Date: January 25, 1990
Type: Boeing 707-321B
Registration: HK 2016
Operator: Avianca, the Airline of Columbia
Where: Cove Neck, New York
Report No. NTSB/AAR-91/04
Report Date: April 30, 1991
Pages: 285

[This is the Executive Summary, not the Abstract.  New format.]

On January 25. 1990, at approximately 2134 eastern standard time,
Avianca Airlines flight 052, a Boeing 707-321B with Colombian
registration HK 2016, crashed in a wooded residential area in Cove
Neck, Long Island, New York.  AVA052 was a scheduled international
passenger flight from Bogota, Colombia, to John F. Kennedy
International airport, New York, with an intermediate stop at Jose
Maria Cordova Airport, near Medellin, Colombia.  Of the 158 persons
aboard, 73 were fatally injured.

Because of poor weather conditions in the northeastern part of the
United States, the flightcrew was place in holding three times by air
traffic control for a total of about 1 hour and 17 minutes.  During
the third period of holding, the flightcrew reported that the airplane
could not hold longer than 5 minutes, that it was running out of fuel,
and that it could not reach its alternate airport, Boston-Logan
International.  Subsequently, the flightcrew executed a missed approach
to John F. Kennedy International Airport.  While trying to return to
the airport, the airplane experienced a loss of power to all four
engines and crashed approximately 16 miles from the airport.

The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable
cause of this accident was the failure of the flightcrew to adequately
manage the airplane's fuel load, and their failure to communicate an
emergency fuel situation to air traffic control before fuel exhaustion
occurred.  Contribution to the accident was the flightcrew's failure
to use an airline operation control dispatch system to assist them
during the international flight into a high-density airport in poor
weather.  Also contributing to the accident was inadequate traffic
flow management by the Federal Aviation Administration and the lack of
standardized understandable terminology for pilots and controllers for
minimum and emergency fuel states.

The Safety board also determines that windshear, crew fatigue and
stress were factors that lead to the unsuccessful completion of the
first approach and thus contributed to the accident.

The safety issues raised in this report include:

        1.  Pilot responsibilities and dispatch responsibilities
        regarding planning. fuel requirements, and flight following
        during international flights.

        2.  Pilot to controller communications regarding the
        terminology to be used to convey fuel status and the need for
        special handling.

        3.  ATC flow control procedures and responsibilities to
        accommodate aircraft with low fuel states.

        4.  Flightcrew coordination and English language proficiency
        of foreign crews.

Recommendations concerning these issues were addressed to the Federal
Aviation Administration and the Director, Departmento Administrativo
de Aeronautico Civil (DAAC), Colombia.

Avianca flight 052, a B707-321B, was a passenger flight originating in Bogata, Colombia to JFK, New York, with an intermediate stop in Medellin, Colombia. Other than the radio transmissions, the conversations between crewmembers were made in Spanish, having been translated into english by the NTSB. The Captain is flying the aircraft, the First Officer is communicating with New York (NY) Approach, and then the Local controller. The following is from the aircraft CVR.

2103:07 Flt 052: "New York approach Avianca zero five ah two leveling five thousand."

2103:11 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, New York approach good evening, fly heading zero six zero."

2103:15 Flt 052: "Heading zero six zero, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2103:18 First Officer: Zero six zero on the heading.

2103:46 Second Officer: When we have...with thousand pounds or less in any tank, it is necessary to do.

2103:53 First Officer: Yes sir.

2103:56 Second Officer: Then the go-around procedure is stating that the power be applied slowly and to avoid rapid accelerations and to have a minimum of nose up attitude.

2104:09 Captain: To maintain what?

2104:10 First Officer: Minimum, minimum nose up attitude, that means the less nose up attitude that one can hold.

2104:10 Second Officer: This thing is going okay.

2104:27 Second Officer: Then flaps to twenty five position and maintain vee ref plus twenty...The highest go around procedure is starting.

2104:34 Second Officer: The flaps, sorry, retract the landing gear with positive rate of climb...if any low pressure light comes on do not select the switch in the off position...the low pressure lights of the pumps comes on, reduce the nose up altitude, the nose up attitude.

2104:57 Second Officer: The forward pumps...

2104:59 Captain: What heading do you have over there?

2105:04 Captain: Select Kennedy on my side.

2105:04 First Officer: Kennedy is on the number two, but if want Commander, I can perform the radio setup right now that we are now being vectored, we are like on down wind position now.

2105:11 Captain: We passed already, no?

2105:12 First Officer: Yes sir.

2105:13 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy turn left, heading three six zero."

2105:17 Flt 052: "Left, heading three six zero, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2105:22 Second Officer: Three six zero.

2105:24 First Officer: Yes Commander, thats what he say.

2105:26 Captain: Perform the radio setup, but leave to me the VOR, the in Kennedy, then select here, tell me what.

2105:34 Captain: Two what?.

2105:34 First Officer: Two twenty three.

2105:35 *sound of altitude alert tone*

2105:38 Captain: Two twenty three.

2105:39 Captain: What heading he provide us?

2105:42 First Officer: New, he give us three six zero.

2105:42 Captain: OKay.

2105:42 First Officer: I am going to perform the radio setup on number two.

2105:42 Captain: Perform the radio setup.

2105:49 *sound of landing gear warning horn*

2105:52 Captain: Hey, understand that the nose must be maintained as low as possible, yes?

2105:52 Second Officer: Thats correct, it says that the forward pumps...

2106:02 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, turn left heading of three zero zero."

2106:04 Flt 052: "Left heading three zero zero, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2106:09 First Officer: Three zero zero on the heading.

2106:10 Second Officer: The forward boost pumps could be uncovered on fuel during the go around.

2106:15 Second Officer: What it means it doesn't contain fuel for feeding itself and a flameout can occur...and it is necessary to lower the nose again.

2106:44 Captain: Heading three hundred.

2106:45 First Officer: Three hundred.

2106:51 First Officer: Right now we are proceeding to the airport inbound and we have twentyseven, seventeen miles.

2106:58 Second Officer: Roger.

2107:04 First Officer: This means that we'll have hamburger tonight.

2107:17 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, turn left heading two niner."

2107:20 Flt 052: "Left heading two niner zero, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2107:24 First Officer: Two niner zero on the heading please.

2107:29 Captain: Two twenty three course counter standby the frequency number.

2107:32 First Officer: Standby for the frequency.

2107:34 Captain: Leave the ILS frequency in Kennedy until I advise you select your own there.

2107:36 First Officer: It is ready.

2107:37 Captain: Well...

2107:42 First Officer: Markers are set.

2108:34 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, descend and maintain, ahh, descend and maintain three thousand."

2108:40 Flt 052: "Descend and maintain three thousand, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2108:40 First Officer: Three thousand feet.

2109:01 Captain: The localizer, are we going to intercept it with two thousand?

2109:06 First Officer: Yes, the initial approach altitude is two thousand or according to the ATC.

2109:11 Second Officer: They got us, they already vectoring us.

2109:21 First Officer: They accomodate us ahead of an....

2109:27 Captain: What?

2109:27 First Officer: They accomodate us.

2109:29 Second Officer: They already know that we are in bad condition.

2109:30 Captain: No, they are descending us.

2109:35 First Officer: One thousand feet.

2109:36 Captain: Ah yes.

2109:38 First Officer: They are giving us priority.

2109:44 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, turn left heading two seven zero."

2109:47 Flt 052: "Left heading two seven zero."

2109:50 First Officer: Two seven zero on the heading.

2109:54 Captain: Two seventy.

2110:03 First Officer: It is ahead of us.

2110:05 Second Officer: Yes.

2110:16 Captain: Standby for the localizer there.

2110:18 First Officer: Yes Sir.

2110:21 First Officer: Outer marker is seven miles.

2110:21 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, turn left heading two five zero, intercept the localizer."

2110:31 Flt 052: "Heading two five zero, intercept the localizer, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2110:37 First Officer: Two fifty is the heading to intercept the localizer.

2111:04 First Officer: This is final vector, do you want the ILS Commander?

2111:07 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, you are one five miles from the outer marker, maintain two thousand until established on the localizer, cleared ILS two two left."

2111:14 Flt 052: "Cleared ILS two two left, maintain two thousand until established, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2111:14 Second Officer: Two thousand.

2111:16 Captain: Select the ILS on my side.

2111:20 First Officer: The ILS in number one, one hundred ten point nine is set.

2111:29 First Officer: For two thousand feet.

2111:29 Second Officer: Localizer alive.

2111:32 Captain: Give me flaps fourteen.

2111:33 First Officer: We are thirteen miles from the outer marker.

2111:33 First Officer: Flaps fourteen.

2111:47 Captain: Navigation number one.

2111:49 Captain: Did you already select flaps fourteen, no?

2111:51 First Officer: Yes sir, are set.

2111:53 First Officer: Navigation number one.

2111:55 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, speed one six zero, if practical."

2111:57 Second Officer: Fourteen.

2111:59 Flt 052: "One six, Avianca zero five two heavy."

2112:05 Captain: Give me flaps twenty five.

2112:06 First Officer: Flaps twenty five.

2112:09 First Officer: Reduce to a minimum.

2112:15 First Officer: We have traffic ahead of us.

2112:28 Captain: We can maintain one hundred and forty with this flap setting.

2112:52 Captain: How many miles is that thing located?

2112:53 First Officer: It is at seven miles commander, and we are at ten miles at the moment from the outer marker.

2113:25 Captain: Reset frequency, the ILS please.

2113:29 First Officer: Okay.

2113:36 Captain: Do it.

2113:34 Captain: Thankyou.

2113:47 First Officer: Now the course is going to be intercepted at the outer marker. This means there is not a problem, Commander.

2114:00 First Officer: Localizer to the left.

2115:08 NY Approach "Avianca zero five two heavy, contact Kennedy Tower, one one niner point one, good day."

2115:12 Flt 052: "One one niner point one, so long."

2115:19 Flt 052: "Kennedy Tower, Avianca zero five two established two two left."

2115:23 Kennedy Tower "Avianca zero five two heavy, Kennedy Tower, two two left, you're number three following seven two seven traffic on a, ah, niner mile final."

2115:32 Flt 052: "Avianca zero five two, roger."

2116:19 Captain: Can I lower the landing gear yet?

2116:21 First Officer: No, I think its too early now.

2116:53 First Officer: If we lower the landing gear, we have to hold very high nose attitude.

2116:53 Second Officer: And its not very...

2116:56 Kennedy Tower "American six ninety two, runway two two left, wind one niner zero at two one, cleared to land."

2117:01 American 692: "Cleared to land, American six ninety two."

2117:17 Kennedy Tower "Avianca zero five two, what's your airspeed?"

2117:20 Flt 052: "Avianca zero five two, one four zero knots."

2117:25 Captain: they was asking for the American.

2117:30 Kennedy Tower "Avianca zero five two, can you increase your airspeed one zero knots?"

2117:40 Captain: One zero.

2117:41 Flt 052: "Okay, one zero knots, increasing"

2117:42 Kennedy Tower "Increase, increase!"

2117:42 Captain: What?

2117:44 Flt 052: "Increasing"

2117:45 Captain: What?

2117:46 Kennedy Tower "Okay"

2117:46 Second Officer: Ten knots more.

2117:48 First Officer: Ten little knots more.

2117:48 Second Officer: Ten little knots more.

2117:48 Captain: One hundred and fifty.

2117:52 Captain: Here we go.

2117:55 Captain: Tell me things louder, because I'm not hearing it.

2118:11 First Officer: We are three miles to the outer marker now.

2118:13 Captain: Right.

2118:15 Captain: Resetting the ILS.

2118:17 First Officer: Here it is already intercepted.

2118:32 First Officer: Glide slope alive.

2118:38 Captain: I'm going to approach at one hundred and forty, it is what he wants or what is the value he wants?